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            lyhkprc  2021-04-13 23:55  2587  1


            • lyhkprc
              lyhkprc2021-04-13 23:55
              Nonproprietary  Names Xylitol
              Alkalizing  agent.Coating  agent; diluent; emollient; humectant; sweetening agent;
                  tablet and capsule diluent; tablet filler.
              Applications  in Pharmaceutical Formulation or Technology Xylitol  is used as a noncariogenic sweetening agent in a variety of pharmaceutical  dosage forms, including tablets, syrups, and coatings. It is also widely used  as an alternative to sucrose in foods and as a base for medicated  confectionery. Xylitol is finding increasing application in chewing gum,(1,2)  mouthrinses,(3) and toothpastes(4) as an agent that decreases dental plaque  and tooth decay (dental caries). Unlike sucrose, xylitol is not fermented  into cariogenic acid end products(5) and it has been shown to reduce dental  caries by inhibiting the growth of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans  bacteria.(6,7) As xylitol has an equal sweetness intensity to sucrose,  combined with a distinct cooling effect upon dissolution of the crystal, it  is highly effective in enhancing the flavor of tablets and syrups and masking  the unpleasant or bitter flavors associated with some pharmaceutical actives  and excipients.
                  In topical cosmetic and toiletry applications, xylitol is used primarily  for its humectant and emollient properties, although it has also been  reported to enhance product stability through a combination of potentiation  of preservatives and its own bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties.  Granulates of xylitol are used as diluents in tablet formulations,where they  can provide chewable tablets with a desirable sweet taste and cooling  sensation, without the ‘chalky’ texture experienced with some other tablet  diluents. Xylitol solutions are employed in tablet-coating applications at  concentrations in excess of 65% w/w Xylitol coatings are stable and provide a  sweet-tasting and durable hard coating.
                  In liquid preparations, xylitol is used as a sweetening agent and vehicle  for sugar-free formulations. In syrups, it has a reduced tendency to  ‘cap-lock’ by effectively preventing crystallization around the closures of  bottles. Xylitol also has a lower water activity and a higher osmotic  pressure than sucrose, therefore enhancing product stability and freshness.  In addition, xylitol has also been demonstrated to exert certain specific  bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects, particularly against common spoilage  organisms.(8,9)
                  Therapeutically, xylitol is additionally utilized as an energy source for  intravenous infusion therapy following trauma.(10)
              DescriptionXylitol  occurs as a white, granular solid comprising crystalline,equidimensional  particles having a mean diameter of about 0.4–0.6 mm. It is odorless, with a  sweet taste that imparts a cooling sensation. Xylitol is also commercially  available in powdered form,and several granular, directly compressible  forms.(11) See also Section 17.


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